- Climate Change
- DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE
Financial Measures Cited in This Report
Measures we Use to Manage Operating Performance
We use various performance measures to help promote our primary goal of sustained growth in corporate value and our ancillary goal of profitable revenue growth. The following are the key measures we used in 2011:
- Non-IFRS SSRS revenue: Our software and software-related service (SSRS) revenue includes software and support revenue plus subscription and other software-related service revenue. The principal source of software revenue is the fees customers pay for software licenses. Software revenue is our key revenue driver because it tends to affect our other revenue streams. Generally, customers who buy software licenses also enter into maintenancemaintenanceSoftware support comprising support for legal changes and corrections delivered through the SAP Notes tool, support packages, problem support, and access to information and online service channels – depending on the maintenance phase. contracts, and these generate recurring software-related service revenue in the form of support revenue after the software sale. MaintenancemaintenanceSoftware support comprising support for legal changes and corrections delivered through the SAP Notes tool, support packages, problem support, and access to information and online service channels – depending on the maintenance phase. contracts cover support services and software updates and enhancements. We generate subscription and software-related service revenue when we provide software on subscription or in a cloud mode, that is, with obligatory hosting terms. Software revenue also tends to stimulate service revenue from consulting and training sales.
- Non-IFRS operating profit/non-IFRS operating margin: In 2011, we used non-IFRS operating profit/non-IFRS operating margin and constant currency non-IFRS operating profit/non-IFRS operating margin to measure our overall operational process efficiency and overall business performance. Non-IFRS operating margin is the ratio of our non-IFRS operating profit to total non-IFRS revenue, expressed as a percentage. See below for a discussion of the IFRS and non-IFRS measures we use.
Measures we Use to Manage Non-Operating Performance
We use the following performance measures to manage non-operating items:
- Finance income, net: This measure provides insight especially into the return on liquid assets and capital investments and the cost of borrowed funds. To manage our financial income, net, we focus on cash flow, the composition of our liquid asset and capital investment portfolio, and the average rate of interest at which assets are invested. We also monitor average outstanding borrowings and the associated finance costs.
- DSO and DPO: We manage working capital by controlling the days’ sales outstanding for operating receivables, or DSO (defined as average number of days from the raised invoice to cash receipt from the customer), and the days’ payables outstanding for operating liabilities, or DPO (defined as average number of days from the received invoice to cash payment to the vendor).
Measures we Use to Manage Overall Performance
For managing our overall performance we use the following measures:
- Earnings per share (EPS): EPS measures our overall performance, because it captures all operating and non-operating elements of profit as well as income tax expense. It represents the portion of profit after tax allocable to each SAP share outstanding (using the weighted average number of shares outstanding over the reporting period). EPS is influenced not only by our operating and non-operating business, and income taxes, but also by the weighted average number of shares outstanding. We believe that stock repurchases and dividend distributions are a good means to return value to shareholders in accordance with the authorizations granted by them.
- Effective tax rate: We define our effective tax rate as the ratio of income tax expense to profit before tax, expressed as a percentage.
- Operating, investing and financing cash flows: Our consolidated statement of cash flows provides insight as to how we generated and used cash and cash equivalents. When used in conjunction with the other primary financial statements it provides information that helps us evaluate the changes of our net assets, our financial structure (including our liquidity and solvency), and our ability to affect the amounts and timing of cash flows in order to adapt to changing circumstances and opportunities.
Our holistic view of the performance measures described above together with our associated analyses comprise the information we use for value-based management. We use planning and control processes to manage the compilation of these key measures and their availability to our decision makers across various management levels.
SAP’s long-term strategic plans are the point of reference for our other planning and controlling processes, including creating a multi-year plan until 2015. We identify future growth and profitability drivers at a highly aggregated level. This process is intended to identify the best areas in which to target sustained investment. Next, we evaluate our multi-year plans for our support and development functions and break down the customer-facing plans by sales region. Based on our detailed annual plans we determine the budget for the respective year. We also have processes in place to forecast revenue and profit on a quarterly basis to quantify whether we expect to realize our strategic goals and to identify any deviations from plan. We continuously monitor the concerned units in the Group to analyze these developments and define any appropriate actions.
Our entire network of planning, control, and reporting processes is implemented in integrated planning and information systems, based on SAP software, across all organizational units so that we can conduct the evaluations and analyses needed to make informed decisions.
Measures Used in This Report
Like in prior years, we provided our 2011 outlook on the basis of certain non-IFRS measures as described above. Therefore, this report contains a non-IFRS based comparison of our actual performance in 2011 against that outlook.
This introductory section provides:
- A reconciliation of IFRS measures to the respective and most comparable non-IFRS measures
- An explanation of the non-IFRS measures we disclose in this report including an explanation of changes we made effective from January 1, 2012
- The reasons why management believes these non-IFRS measures are useful to investors and the limitations of these measures
- An explanation of our constant currency information
Reconciliations of IFRS to Non-IFRS Numbers for 2011 and 2010
The following tables reconcile our IFRS numbers to the respective and most comparable non-IFRS numbers for each of 2011 and 2010. Our 2010 non-IFRS comparative amounts have been adjusted to conform to the amended non-IFRS definitions introduced in 2011 that also exclude expenses for share-based compensation and restructuring. Due to rounding, the sum of the numbers presented in these tables might not precisely equal the totals we provide.
Explanation of Non-IFRS Measures
We disclose certain financial measures, such as non-IFRS revenue, non-IFRS operating expenses, non-IFRS operating profit, non-IFRS operating margin, non-IFRS earnings per share, constant currency revenue and operating profit measures that are not prepared in accordance with IFRS and are therefore considered non-IFRS financial measures. Our non-IFRS financial measures may not correspond to non-IFRS financial measures that other companies report. The non-IFRS financial measures that we report should only be considered in addition to, and not as substitutes for or superior to, revenue, operating expenses, operating profit, operating margin, earnings per share or other measures of financial performance prepared in accordance with IFRS.
We believe that the disclosed supplemental historical and prospective non-IFRS financial information provides useful information to investors because management uses this information, in addition to financial data prepared in accordance with IFRS, to attain a more transparent understanding of our past performance and our anticipated future results. In 2011, we used these non-IFRS measures consistently in our internal planning and forecasting, reporting and compensation, as well as in our external communications as follows:
- Our management primarily uses these non-IFRS measures rather than IFRS measures as the basis for making financial, strategic and operating decisions.
- The variable remuneration components of our Executive Board members and employees are based on non-IFRS revenue and non-IFRS operating profit measures rather than the respective IFRS measures.
- The annual budgeting process for all management units is based on non-IFRS revenue and non-IFRS operating profit numbers rather than the respective IFRS numbers.
- All forecast and performance reviews with all senior managers globally are based on these non-IFRS measures, rather than the respective IFRS numbers.
- Both our internal performance targets and the guidance we provided to the capital markets are based on non-IFRS revenues and non-IFRS profit measures rather than the respective IFRS numbers.
Our non-IFRS financial measures reflect adjustments based on the items below, as well as adjustments for the related income tax effects.
Revenue items identified as non-IFRS revenue have been adjusted from the respective IFRS numbers by including the full amount of support revenue that would have been recorded by entities acquired by SAP had they remained stand-alone entities but which we are not permitted to record as revenue under IFRS due to fair value accounting for the support contracts in effect at the time of the respective acquisitions.
Under IFRS, we record at fair value the support contracts in effect at the time entities were acquired. Consequently, our IFRS support revenue, our IFRS software and software-related service revenue, and our IFRS total revenue for periods subsequent to acquisitions do not reflect the full amount of support revenue that would have been recorded for these support contracts absent these acquisitions by SAP. Adjusting revenue numbers for this revenue impact provides additional insight into the comparability across periods of our ongoing performance.
In light of our continuing focus on the cloud business and considering our recent acquisition of SuccessFactors, we are widening the range of revenues for which acquisition-related deferred revenue write downs are adjusted for in determining our non-IFRS revenue and profit numbers. We continue to adjust for deferred revenue write downs, that is for revenues that would have been recognized had the acquired entities remained stand-alone entities but that we are not permitted to recognize as revenue under IFRS as a result of business combination accounting rules. However, in the definitions of our non-IFRS measures used through 2011, such adjustments for deferred revenue write downs were limited to support revenue. From 2012 onwards, we will also make such deferred revenue write down adjustments for cloud subscription revenue and other similarly recurring revenues. All other non-IFRS measures will remain unchanged. As the deferred revenue write-down adjustments for recurring revenues other than support revenue from acquisitions that were executed through 2011 were immaterial, we do not restate prior period non-IFRS measures to align with the new definition.
Non-IFRS Operating Expense
Operating expense figures that are identified as non-IFRS operating expenses have been adjusted by excluding the following expenses:
- Acquisition-related charges
- Amortization expense/impairment charges of intangibles acquired in business combinations and certain stand-alone acquisitions of intellectual property (including purchased in-process research and development)
- Settlements of pre-existing business relationships in connection with a business combination
- Acquisition-related third-party expenses
- Discontinued activities: Results of discontinued operations that qualify as such under IFRS in all respects except that they do not represent a major line of business. Under U.S. GAAP, which we reported under until 2009, we presented the results of operations of the TomorrowNow entities as discontinued operations. Under IFRS, results of discontinued operations may only be presented as discontinued operations if a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations is discontinued. Our TomorrowNow operations were separate, but were not a major line of business and thus did not qualify for separate presentation under IFRS.
- Expenses from our share-based compensation plans
- Restructuring expenses
Non-IFRS Operating Profit, Non-IFRS Operating Margin, and Non-IFRS Earnings Per Share
Operating profit, operating margin, and earnings per share identified as non-IFRS operating profit, non-IFRS operating margin, and non-IFRS earnings per share have been adjusted from the respective IFRS measures by adjusting for the above-mentioned non-IFRS revenue and non-IFRS operating expenses.
We exclude certain acquisition-related expenses for the purpose of calculating non-IFRS operating profit, non-IFRS operating margin, and non-IFRS earnings per share when evaluating SAP’s continuing operational performance because these expenses generally cannot be changed or influenced by management after the relevant acquisition other than by disposing of the acquired assets. Since management at levels below the Executive Board has no influence on these expenses, we generally do not consider these expenses for the purpose of evaluating the performance of management units. Additionally, these non-IFRS measures have been adjusted from the respective IFRS measures for the results of the discontinued activities, share-based compensation expenses and restructuring expenses.
Usefulness of Non-IFRS Measures
We believe that our non-IFRS measures are useful to investors for the following reasons:
- The non-IFRS measures provide investors with insight into management’s decision-making, since management uses these non-IFRS measures to run our business and make financial, strategic and operating decisions.
- The non-IFRS measures provide investors with additional information that enables a comparison of year-over-year operating performance by eliminating certain direct effects of acquisitions and discontinued activities.
- Non-IFRS and non-GAAP measures are widely used in the software industry. In most cases, our non-IFRS measures are more suitable for comparison with our competitors’ corresponding non-IFRS and non-GAAP measures than are our IFRS measures.
Additionally, we believe that our adjustments to our IFRS numbers for the results of our discontinued TomorrowNow activities are useful to investors for the following reasons:
- Despite the migration from U.S. GAAP to IFRS, we will continue to internally treat the ceased TomorrowNow activities as discontinued operations and thus will continue to exclude potential future TomorrowNow results, which are expected to mainly comprise expenses in connection with the Oracle lawsuit, from our internal management reporting, planning, forecasting, and compensation plans. Therefore, adjusting our non-IFRS measures for the results of the discontinued TomorrowNow activities provides insight into the financial measures that SAP uses internally.
- By adjusting the non-IFRS numbers for the results from our discontinued TomorrowNow activities, the non-IFRS numbers are more comparable to the non-GAAP measures that SAP used through the end of 2009. That enhances the comparability of SAP’s performance measures before and after the full IFRS migration.
We include the revenue adjustments outlined above and exclude the expense adjustments outlined above when making decisions to allocate resources, both on a company level and at lower levels of the organization. In addition, we use these non-IFRS measures to gain a better understanding of SAP’s operating performance from period to period.
We believe that our non-IFRS financial measures described above have limitations, including but not limited to the following:
- The eliminated amounts may be material to us.
- Without being analyzed in conjunction with the corresponding IFRS measures, the non-IFRS measures are not indicative of our present and future performance, foremost for the following reasons:
- While our non-IFRS profit numbers reflect the elimination of certain acquisition-related expenses, no eliminations are made for the additional revenue and other revenue that result from the acquisitions.
- While we adjust for the fair value accounting of the acquired entities’ recurring revenue contracts we do not adjust for the fair value accounting of deferred compensation items that result from commissions paid to the acquired company’s sales force and third parties for closing the respective customer contracts.
- The acquisition-related charges that we eliminate in deriving our non-IFRS profit numbers are likely to recur should SAP enter into material business combinations in the future.
- The acquisition-related amortization expense that we eliminate in deriving our non-IFRS profit numbers is a recurring expense that will impact our financial performance in future years.
- The revenue adjustment for the fair value accounting of the acquired entities’ support contracts and the expense adjustment for acquisition-related charges do not arise from a common conceptual basis. This is because the revenue adjustment aims to improve the comparability of the initial post-acquisition period with future post-acquisition periods while the expense adjustment aims to improve the comparability between post-acquisition periods and pre-acquisition periods. This should particularly be considered when evaluating our non-IFRS operating profit and non-IFRS operating margin numbers as these combine our non-IFRS revenue and non-IFRS expenses despite the absence of a common conceptual basis.
- Our discontinued activities and restructuring charges could result in significant cash outflows. The same applies to our share-based compensation expense because most of our share-based compensation plans are to be settled in cash rather than shares.
- The valuation of our cash-settled, share-based payment plans could vary significantly from period to period due to the fluctuation of our share price and other parameters used in the valuation of these plans.
- We have in the past issued share-based compensation awards to our employees every year, and intend to continue doing so in the future. Thus our share-based compensation expenses are recurring although the amounts usually change from period to period.
Despite these limitations, we believe that the presentation of the non-IFRS measures and the corresponding IFRS measures, together with the relevant reconciliations, provides useful information to management and investors regarding present and future business trends relating to our financial condition and results of operations. We do not evaluate our growth and performance without considering both non-IFRS measures and the relevant IFRS measures. We caution the readers of our financial reports to follow a similar approach by considering our non-IFRS measures only in addition to, and not as a substitute for or superior to, revenue or other measures of our financial performance prepared in accordance with IFRS.
Constant Currency Information
We believe it is important for investors to have information that provides insight into our sales. Revenue measures determined under IFRS provide information that is useful in this regard. However, both sales volume and currency effects impact period-over-period changes in sales revenue. We do not sell standardized units of products and services, so we cannot provide relevant information on sales volume by providing data on the changes in productproductDeliverable software unit that customers can view, install, and renew. and service units sold. To provide additional information that may be useful to investors in breaking down and evaluating changes in sales volume, we present information about our revenue and various values and components relating to operating profit that are adjusted for foreign currency effects. We calculate constant currency revenue and operating profit measures by translating foreign currencies using the average exchange rates from the previous year instead of the current year.
We believe that constant currency measures have limitations, particularly as the currency effects that are eliminated constitute a significant element of our revenue and expenses and could materially impact our performance. We therefore limit our use of constant currency measures to the analysis of changes in volume as one element of the full change in a financial measure. We do not evaluate our results and performance without considering both constant currency measures in non-IFRS revenue and non-IFRS operating profit measures on the one hand and changes in revenue, operating expenses, operating profit, or other measures of financial performance prepared in accordance with IFRS on the other. We caution the readers of our financial reports to follow a similar approach by considering constant currency measures only in addition to, and not as a substitute for or superior to, changes in revenue, operating expenses, operating profit, or other measures of financial performance prepared in accordance with IFRS.
Free Cash Flow
We use our free cash flow measure to estimate the cash flow remaining after all expenditures required to maintain or expand our organic business have been paid off. This measure provides management with supplemental information to assess our liquidity needs. We calculate free cash flow as net cash from operating activities minus purchases, other than purchases made in connection with business combinations, of intangible assets and property, plant, and equipment.
Free Cash Flow
|2011||2010||Change in %|
|Net cash flows from operating activities||3,775||2,922||29|
|Purchase of intangible assets and property, plant, and equipment||-445||-334||33|
|Free cash flow||3,330||2,588||29|